Electricity has always remained a prime necessity of life as it is impossible to image our life without electricity. But the only problem, as far as electricity is concerned, is the cost at which it is generated – that is crossing all limits by every passing day, and thus putting undue burden on the consumers in the form of higher electricity bills.
However, there is a solution to manage energy efficient lightings at home. This article talks about such a powerful and efficient solution for energy efficient lighting to save energy by optimizing home appliances, such as fans, lights, tubelights, etc., based on a person’s presence in the room using different wireless technologies like IR, Zigbee, and so on.
1. Optimum Energy Management System Using IR
This system is designed to switch the home appliances (room lights in this case) on when a person enters in and leaves out of his room. The system also counts the number of persons entering and leaving the room and displays that information on LCD display. The ultimate objective of this system is to save the energy as well as to design automatic room light controller by turning off all the appliances when nobody is there in the home.
This system possesses two sets of IR LED and IR sensors to detect the persons entering and leaving the room. The IR LED emits light generated by the timer circuit at some specific frequency. This frequency is detected by the IR sensor that gives logical signals to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed in such a way that for every pulse that enters the IR sensor, it increments the counter, and for the exit sensor signal, it decrements the count. Both such counts are displayed on the display.
After receiving the pulse signal from the IR sensor, the microcontroller switches loads by using relay. This relay coil gets energized and de-energized based on the pulses from the microcontroller such that the load is switched only in case of a person’s availability. The IR sensor range can also be extended based on the application usage.
2. Energy Saving of Room Lights by Automatic Detection of Humans Based on Zigbee Communication
This project is similar to the above one, but the only difference is the way in which the controlling of appliances is done. Zigbee communication is implemented in this project to have a better control on appliances. In addition to the lights, fan loads can also be controlled in this project based on the temperature inside the room.
When someone moves through the path of the IR receiver, it gets obstructed from receiving the IR beam. But, the PIR sensor detects the availability of humans by receiving the radiations from them. These two types of detections direct the microcontroller to the confirmation that human beings are present in the room, and thus immediately alert the microcontroller.
After receiving the signals from the IR and PIR sensors the microcontroller checks for the light intensity and temperature by LDR and temperature sensors, respectively. If the light intensity is low, then it sends the light control signals; and the temperature signals are transferred to the Zigbee receiver by a transmitter circuit. The Zigbee is a low-cost and low-powered communication capable of transferring data very efficiently over a given range.
The microcontroller, after receiving the signals from the zigbee receiver, controls the appliances such as fan and bulbs. This project is the extension to the first one wherein there is a necessity to maintain some distance between the entrance and the light control such that a person entering right from the gate must turn the lights on in the whole building.
3. Automatic Room Light Controller with Auto Door Opening and Closing
This project is an extension to the above two projects as it considers door opening and closing for effective lighting in rooms. The main aim of this project is to maintain the intesity level of the light in a room by considering the light inside the room by a closed loop control of microcontroller.
The system depicted in the above figure comprises two pairs of IR transceivers: one is placed outside in front of the door, and the other is placed inside the room. If a person enters into the room, the IR sensors send the signals to the microcontroller such that the door opens.
Similarly, based on the light intensity, the lights also get turned on inside the room.After the person’s entry into the room, the door gets closed by another set of IR sensors. In this particular system, the Lights will remain turned off during the day due to LDR, and also in the absence of any person in the room.
The microcontroller acts as a main controller in this project, which is programmed using keil software, and the closed-loop operation is implemented by continuously monitoring the light intensity inside the room with the help of LDR.
These are the three major project ideas implemented to design automatic room light controller based on IR and Zigbee-based technologies. The keen attention, interest and patience with which you have read this article is really appreciated, and therefore, we are ready to give you further assistance of any kind regarding your projects’ requirements and needs. In such regard, you can leave your comments, doubts and suggestions in the comment section given below.