Today communication is the heart of the technology. Communication is achieved over a transmitter and a receiver through signals. These signals carry the information through modulation. Pulse Amplitude Modulation is one of the kinds of modulation techniques used in signal transmission. Pulse amplitude modulation is the simplest form of modulation. It is Analog to digital conversion method where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of the series of signal pulses.
Wireless communication plays a significant role in day to day life. Besides communication, wireless technology has become an integral part of our daily activities. The transmission of data or information from one place to another wirelessly is referred as wireless communication. This provides an exchange of data without any conductor through RF and radio signals. The information is transmitted across the devices over some meters to hundreds of kilometres through well-defined channels.
The printed circuit boards are very vital part of a modern electronic equipment. PCB is an acronym for printed circuit board. A basic PCB circuit consists of a very large number of passive and active components. All the components are connected from side to side with traces on the board. It is absolutely possible to develop very large circuits on small printed circuit boards with the availability of very small sized electronic components.
Printed circuit board offer varied advantages which make them the perfect choice for the manufacturers of electronic components, instruments, and equipment everywhere. The advantages of the printed circuit board are discussed below.
The transistor was invented by William Shockley in 1947. A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device which can be used for switching applications, amplification of weak signals and in quantities of thousands and millions of transistors are interconnected and embedded into a tiny integrated circuit/chip, which makes a computer memory.
Motion sensors are commonly used in security systems. They work based on a wide variety of principles and are used in a wide variety of applications. Typical usage could be in the exterior doorways or windows of a building for monitoring the area around the building. Upon detecting motion, they generate an electrical signal based on which some actions are taken. Some operate in much the same way as a military radar scanner, while others work based on vibration, infrared radiation and, even sound. All of these different types of sensors have different strengths and weaknesses, which are important to take into account when making a decision to choose a particle motion detection sensor.
In this article, we are going to give a brief explanation on how to implement “Home and Industry Safety using Fire and Gas Detection System using GSM”. The main aim of this project is to monitor for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage to avoid fire accidents, providing house/industry safety feature where the security has been an important issue. The system detects the LPG leakage using a gas sensor and flames by a flame sensor that alerts the consumer about the gas leakage by sending SMS with the help of GSM module which is connected preprogrammed microcontroller.
Electricity is an essential requirement for leading a happy life. It is to be correctly used and achieved. Many statistical errors overcome in the process of monthly customer billing. This idea of wireless data transmission is being planned to decrease the human involvement to gather the monthly reading and to minimize the technical problems about the billing process. This will help in a huge reduction of power thefts as well to analyze average power consumption of a certain locality. An automatic meter reading system is an actual way of data collection, that permit substantial saving through the saving of meter read, more accuracy, allow regular reading, better billing, condensed tempering. It gives better customer services, by transferring alert of power cuts and updates. Automatic meter reading (AMR) technology is used for remote monitoring, control domestic energy meter and also to reduce the power thievery. This article presents a programmable energy meter using GSM technology, that enables energy Supplier companies to read the energy meter reading frequently without the person visiting each house. This project is very beneficial for small villages or remote area. This system can be very efficient, swift and accurate.
The biometric is a technology of measuring, science and it analyze the biological data. In the modern communications approximately it has accessible electronically, users of computer technology, it has increment in electronic services and with the security system. It improves in the election system with the help of new technologies in voting process. The information about election data is stored, recorded and processed the above information as a digital information. In olden days the information security is with the help of military and instructions of the government. The human body characteristic like DNA, fingerprints, voice patterns and hand measurements is used for authentication purpose. The e-services and information security are making sure that data, communication, have the security and privacy enable.
In general, controlling of the home appliances can be done by normal switches. But, these days we frequently see the home automation for controlling the appliances using several technologies. This article presents the DTMF based load control system. DTMF is a signaling system for recognizing the inputs on a keypad. It is used in signaling for telecommunication over analog telephone lines in the voice frequency band among telephone handsets and communication devices. This Article discusses about DTMF based load control system.
In nature, there are various electrical signals like analog, which means the time varying continuous signal. In such signals, the first quantity of the signal is a voltage, whereas the next quantity of the signal can be anything like pressure, force, temperature and light accelerations. Most of the microcontrollers available in the market are digital in nature. They can only recognize high or low-level input pins. For example, if the input is greater than 2.5 volts, then it will be treated as high, and if it is less than 2.5 volts, then it will be treated as low. So, we cannot directly measure voltage from microcontrollers. [Read more…]