Wireless communication plays a significant role in day to day life. Besides communication, wireless technology has become an integral part of our daily activities. The transmission of data or information from one place to another wirelessly is referred as wireless communication. This provides an exchange of data without any conductor through RF and radio signals. The information is transmitted across the devices over some meters to hundreds of kilometres through well-defined channels.
Different types of signals are used in communication between the devices for wireless transmission of data. The following are the different electromagnetic signals are used depending on their wavelength and frequency.
- Radio Frequency Transmission
- Infrared Transmission
- Microwave Transmission
- Lightwave Transmission
Radio Frequency Transmission
Radio frequency is a form of electromagnetic transmission used in wireless communication. RF signals are easily generated, ranging 3kHz to 300GHz. These are used in wireless communication because of their property to penetrate through objects and travel long distances.
Radio communication depends on the wavelength, transmitter power, receiver quality, type, size and height of the antenna.
- These are frequency dependent
- These have the relatively low bandwidth for data transmission.
Infrared radiations are electromagnetic radiations with longer wavelengths than visible light. These are usually used for short-range communications. These signals do not pass through solid objects.
Examples like Television remote control, mobile data sharing.
Microwaves are the form of electromagnetic transmission used in wireless communication systems. The wavelength of microwave ranges from one meter to one millimetre. The frequency varies from 300MHz to 300GHz. These are widely used for long distance communications and are relatively less expensive.
- The microwave does not pass through buildings.
- Bad weather affects the signal transmission.
- These are frequency dependent.
Light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength ranging between infrared radiations and ultraviolet radiations. The wavelength ranges from 430 to 750THz. These are unguided optical signals such as laser and are unidirectional.
- These signals cannot penetrate through rain and fog.
- The laser beam gets easily diverted by air.
Types of Wireless Communication Technologies
Wireless communication technology is categorized into different types depending on the distance of communication, the range of data and type of devices used. The following are the different types of wireless communication technologies.
- Radio and Television Broadcasting
- Radar Communication
- Satellite communication
- Cellular Communication
- Global Positioning System
- Radio Frequency Identification
Radio communication was one of the first wireless technology developed and it is still in use. The portable multi-channel radios allow the user to communicate over short distances whereas citizen band and maritime radios provide communication services over long distances for truckers and sailors.
Mostly radio broadcasts sound through the air as radio waves. Radio has a transmitter which transmits the data in the form of radio signals to the receiver antenna.
To broadcast common programming stations are associated with the radio networks. The broadcast happens either in simulcast or syndication or both the forms. Radio broadcasting may be done via cable FM, and satellites over long distances at up to two megabits/Sec.
A cellular network uses encrypted radio links, modulated to allow many users to communicate across the single frequency band. As the individual handsets lack significant broadcasting power, the system depends on a network of cellular towers which are capable of triangulating the source of any signal and handing reception duties off to the most suitable antenna.
The data transmission over cellular networks is possible with modern 4G systems capable of speeds reaching that of wired DSL. Cellular companies charge their customers by a minute of their voice and by the kilobytes for data.
Satellite communication is a wireless technology having significant importance across the globe. They have found widespread use in specialized situations.
The devices using satellite technology to communicate directly with the orbiting satellite through radio signals.
This allows users to stay connected virtually from anywhere on the earth. Portable satellite phones and modems have powerful broadcast feature and reception hardware than the cellular devices due to the increased range.
The satellite communication consists of a space segment and a ground segment. When the signal is sent to the satellite through a device, the satellite amplifies the signal and sent it back to the receiver antenna which is located on the earth’s surface. The ground segment consists of a transmitter, receiver and the space segment, which is the satellite itself.
Wi-Fi is a low-cost wireless communication technology. A WiFi setup consists of a wireless router which serves a communication hub, linking portable device with an internet connection.This network facilitates connection of many devices depending on the router configuration. These networks are limited in range due to the low power transmission, allowing the user to connect only in the close proximity.
This network facilitates connection of many devices depending on the router configuration. These networks are limited in range due to the low power transmission, allowing the user to connect only in the close proximity.
- Information can be transmitted quickly with a high speed and accuracy.
- The internet can be accessed from anywhere, at any time without any cables or wires.
- Emergency situations can be alerted through wireless communication.
- Wireless, no bunches of wire running out.
- Communication can reach where wiring is not feasible and costly.
- An Unauthorized person can easily misuse the wireless signals which spread through the air.
- It is very important to secure the wireless network to protect information.
- High cost to set up the infrastructure.
- Wireless communication is influenced by physical constructions, climatic conditions and interference from other wireless devices.
Applications Wireless Communication
Wireless communication has wide applications.
- Wireless Power Transmission
- Radar communication
- Artificial intelligence
- Fiber optics
- Intelligent Transport Systems
Therefore, this is all about Types of wireless communication and applications, these networks are one of the important technologies in the telecommunications market. WiFi, WiMax, Bluetooth, Femtocell, 3G and 4G are some of the most important standards of Wireless technology.
The information which is given in this article will be helpful to the viewers. Furthermore, any queries, suggestions or electronics projects, you can comment us by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you “What are the disadvantages of Wireless Communication?”