Buy Electronics & Electrical Projects in India Buy Electronic Kits & Electrical Projects in New Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune, Chennai, Ahmedabad and the rest of India. Thu, 25 Jan 2018 13:57:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Principle and Explanation of NMOS Fabrication Technology Thu, 25 Jan 2018 13:56:17 +0000 NMOS Fabrication Process

NMOS Fabrication Process

There are a huge number and assortment of fundamental fabrication steps utilized as a part of the generation of present-day MOS ICs. A similar procedure can be utilized for the planned of NMOS or PMOS or CMOS devices. The most commonly used material could be either metal or poly-silicon. The most regularly utilized substrate is mass silicon or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS). In order to keep a strategic distance from the nearness of parasitic transistors, varieties are acquired the systems that are utilized to isolate the devices in the wafer. The NMOS fabrication steps are as per the following.

NMOS Fabrication Steps

Using the fundamental processes, usual processing steps of the poly-Si gate self-aligning nMOS technology are discussed below. It can be superior understood by allowing for the fabrication of a single enhancement-type transistor. The step by step procedure of NMOS fabrication steps include the following


Processing is passed on single crystal Si of high purity on which necessary P impurities is initiated as the crystal is developed. The diameter of such wafers are about 75-150 mm and 0.4 mm thick and they are doped with say boron to impurity absorption of 10 to power 15/cm3 to 10 to the power 16 /cm3.


A SiO2 (silicon dioxide) layer normally 1 micrometer broad is grown all above the exterior of the wafer to guard the surface, performs as a barrier to the dopant through processing, and offers a generally protecting substrate on to which extra layers may be deposited and decorative.

Step 3:

The exterior (surface) is now enclosed with the photo oppose which is deposit onto the wafer and spun to an even distribution of the necessary thickness.

Step 4:

The photoresist coating is then uncovered to ultraviolet (UV) light through masking which describes those areas into which transmission is to take place as one with transistor channels. Suppose, for example, that those areas uncovered to UV radiations are polymerized, but that the areas necessary for diffusion are protected by the cover and remain unchanged.

Step 5:

These regions are consequently readily fixed away together with the original silicon-di-oxide so that the surface of the wafer is uncovered in the window defined by the mask.

Step 6:

A thin layer of SiO2 (0.1 micro m typical) is grown over the chip surface after removing the remains of photoresist. Further, a gate structure is created by depositing polysilicon on the top of it. Factors like precise control of thickness, impurity concentration, and resistivity are necessary for the fabrication of fine pattern devices.

Step 7:

Further, the photoresist coating and masking allows the polysilicon to be patterned. After this, the thin oxide is removed to expose the areas. These areas are defused with n-type impurities by heating the wafer to a high temperature and passing the gas of desired n-type impurities to form the source and the drain.

Note: The polysilicon has an underlying thin oxide which acts as a mask during diffusion. This is called self-aligning.

Step 8:

Again a thick oxide of SiO2 is grown over and then masked with photoresist. Now it is etched to expose selected areas of the polysilicon gate, drain and the source where connections are to be made.

Step 9:

Now the whole chip has the deposits of the metal (aluminum) over its surface, typically to a thickness of 1micro m. This metal layer is masked and then etched to form the required interconnection pattern.

The above fabrication steps let only the arrangement of nMOS enhancement type transistors on a chip. But, if depletion type transistors are also to be created, one extra step is required for the arrangement of n-diffusions in the channel sections where depletion transistors are to be shaped. It engages one extra step that is, requires one extra mask to describe channel regions following a diffusion procedure using the ion implantation technique.

For detailed information regarding the NMOS fabrication process. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. Furthermore any queries regarding this concept or to implement any electronic projects please post your ideas and queries by commenting on the comment section below.

]]> 3 Working and Applications of Common Collector Amplifier Fri, 29 Dec 2017 10:42:36 +0000 An amplifier is an electronic circuit that is used to amplify the voltage signal or a current signal. The amplifier circuits are generally designed with one or more transistors. A BJT or a FET transistor is a major component of the amplifier system. They can be categorized into a weak signal amplifier or a power signal amplifier and are used in wireless communication and broadcasting, and audio equipment. This article discusses the common collector amplifier which is the amplifier topologies.

Common Collector Amplifier

The common collector amplifier is one of the three basic BJT amplifier topologies. In this circuit, the base of the transistor serves as an input, emitter as the output and the collector is grounded that is, common for both emitter and base. It is also called as an emitter follower. This configuration acts as a buffer. This circuit provides offer low output impedance while taking high input impedance. This configuration is mainly used in digital circuits with logic gates and has many applications.

Common Collector Configuration

Common Collector Configuration

Characteristics of Common Collector Amplifier

The load resistor in the common collector amplifier being placed in series with the emitter circuit receives both the base current and collector currents.

Since the emitter of a transistor is the sum of the base and collector currents, since the base and collector currents always add together to form the emitter current, it would be reasonable to assume that this amplifier will have a very large current gain.

The common collector amplifier has quite a large current gain, larger than any other transistor amplifier configuration. The characteristics of the common collector amplifier as mentioned below.

Parameter Characteristics 
Voltage gain Zero
Current gain High
Power gain Medium
Input or output phase relationship Zero degree
Input resistance High
Output resistance Low

Input Characteristics

The common collector characteristics are quite different from the common base and common emitter characteristics. This is because the input voltage Vbc is largely determined by the output voltage Vec. As Vbc increases with Vec constant Veb decreases hence Ib decreases.

Input Characteristics of Common Collector

Input Characteristics of Common Collector

Output Characteristics

Here as Vcc increases Ie also increases. Just as in common emitter output characteristics Ic increases with increasing Ib, so Ie also increases here with the increase in Ib. Hence, for constant Vec, Ie increases with Ib.

Output Characteristics of Common Collector

Output Characteristics of Common Collector

The small signal circuit performance can now be calculated. Total circuit performance is the sum of quiescent and small signal performance. The AC model circuit is shown below.

AC Modeling of Common Collector Amplifier

AC Modeling of Common Collector Amplifier

Current Gain

The current gain is defined as the ratio of the load current to the input current.

Ai= il/ib= -ie/ib

From the h-parameter circuit, it can be determined that the emitter and base currents are related to the dependent current source by the constant hfe+1. The current gain is dependent only on the BJT characteristics and independent of any other circuit element values. Its value is given by

Ai= hfe+1

Input Resistance

The input resistance is given by

This result is identical to that for a common emitter amplifier with an emitter resistor. The input resistance to a common collector amplifier is large for typical values of the load resistance Re.

Voltage Gain

The voltage gain is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage. If the input voltage is again taken to be the voltage at the input to the transistor, Vb.

Av= Vo/Vb
Av= (vo/il)(il/ib)(ib/vb)

Replacing each term with its equivalent expression

Av= (Re)(Ai)(1/Ri

The above equation is somewhat less than unity. The approximation equation of voltage gain is given by

The overall voltage gain can be defined as

Avs= Vo/Vs

This ratio can be directly derived from the voltage gain Av, and a voltage division between the source resistance Rs and the amplifier input resistance R.

After substitutions of appropriate equations, the overall voltage gain is given by

Avs= 1- (hie+Rb) / (Ri+Rb)

Output Resistance

The output resistance is defined as the Thevenin resistance at the output of the amplifier looking back into the amplifier. The circuit is shown below, the AC equivalent circuit to calculate the output resistance.

Common Collector Output Resistance AC Equivalent Circuit

Common Collector Output Resistance AC Equivalent Circuit

If a voltage v is applied to the output terminals, the base current is found to be

ib= -v/(Rb+hie)

The total current flowing into the BJT is given by

i= -ib – hfe . ib

The output resistance is calculated as

Ro= v/i = (Rb+hie) / (hfe+1)

The output resistance for a common collector transistor amplifier is typically small.


  • It is useful as an impedance matching device since its input impedance is much higher than its output impedance.
  • It is used in digital circuits with logic gates.
  • It is used as a switching circuit.
  • It is also used for cascade amplifier circuit isolation.

This article discusses the working of the common emitter amplifier circuit and its applications. By reading the above information you have got an idea about this concept. Furthermore, any queries regarding this article or if you want to implement Electrical and Electronic projects please feel free to comment in the below section.

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Circuit Design of Pulse Amplitude Modulation Wed, 27 Dec 2017 12:08:13 +0000 Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Today communication is the heart of the technology. Communication is achieved over a transmitter and a receiver through signals. These signals carry the information through modulation. Pulse Amplitude Modulation is one of the kinds of modulation techniques used in signal transmission. Pulse amplitude modulation is the simplest form of modulation. It is Analog to digital conversion method where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of the series of signal pulses.

Design of Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Before we go into the design of pulse amplitude modulation let us know about the concept of modulation and different types of modulations.

What is Modulation?

Modulation is a process of changing the characteristics of a carrier signal like amplitude, frequency and width, etc. It is the process of adding information to the carrier signal. A carrier signal is a steady waveform with constant amplitude and frequency.



Modulation is normally applied to electromagnetic signals like radio laser and optical signals. The Audio, video, images and text data are added to the carrier signal for transmission over telecommunication.

Types of Modulation

Modulation is categorized into two types depending on the type of signal.

  • Continuous-wave Modulation
  • Pulse Modulation

Continuous-wave modulation and Pulse modulation are further categorized as shown below.



Continuous-wave Modulation

In continuous wave modulation signal is used as a carrier signal which modulates the message signal. There are three parameters that can be altered to achieve modulation namely, frequency, amplitude and phase. Thus, there are three types of modulations.

  1. Amplitude Modulation
  2. Frequency Modulation
  3. Phase Modulation
Types of Analog Modulation

Types of Analog Modulation

Pulse Modulation

Pulse modulation is a technique in which the signal is transmitted with the information by pulses. This is divided into Analog Pulse Modulation and Digital Pulse Modulation.

Analog pulse modulation is classified as

  • Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
  • Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
  • Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Digital modulation is classified as

  • Pulse Code Modulation
  • Delta Modulation

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Pulse amplitude modulation is a technique in which the amplitude of each pulse is controlled by the instantaneous amplitude of the modulation signal. It is a modulation system in which the signal is sampled at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling. This technique transmits the data by encoding in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses.

Pulse Amplitude Modulation Signal

Pulse Amplitude Modulation Signal

There are two types of sampling techniques for transmitting a signal using PAM. They are:

  • Flat Top PAM
  • Natural PAM

Flat Top PAM: The amplitude of each pulse is directly proportional to modulating signal amplitude at the time of pulse occurrence. The amplitude of the signal cannot be changed with respect to the analog signal to be sampled. The tops of the amplitude remain flat.

Flat Top PAM

Flat Top PAM

Natural PAM: The amplitude of each pulse is directly proportional to modulating signal amplitude at the time of pulse occurrence. Then follows the amplitude of the pulse for the rest of the half cycle.

Natural PAM

Natural PAM

Circuit Design of Pulse Amplitude Modulation

A PAM is generated from a pure sine wave modulating the signal and a square wave generator which produces the carrier pulse and a PAM modulator circuit.

A sine wave generator is used which is based on Wien Bridge Oscillator circuit. This can produce distortion less sine wave at the output. The circuit is designed such that the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted using a potentiometer.

Sine Wave Generator

Sine Wave Generator

The frequency can be varied by varying the potentiometer R2 and the amplitude of the adjusted using the potentiometer R. The frequency of the sine wave generated is given by
                                        F = 1/(2π√R1R2C1C2)

The square wave is generated using op-amp based astable circuit. The op-amp is used to reduce the complexity of generating the square wave. The ON time and the OFF time of the pulse can be made identical and the frequency can be adjusted without changing them.

Square Wave Generator

Square Wave Generator

The time period of the pulses generated depends on the value of the resistance R and the capacitance C.The period of the op-amp astable circuit is given by T = 2.2RC

Types of PAM

Pulse amplitude modulation is categorized into two types

  • Single Polarity PAM
  • Double Polarity PAM

Single polarity PAM is a situation where a suitable fixed DC bias is added to the signal to ensure that all the pulses are positive.Double polarity PAM is a situation where the pulses are both positive and negative.

Applications of PAM

  • It is used in Ethernet communication.
  • It is used in many micro-controllers for generating the control signals.
  • It is used in Photo-biology.
  • It is used as an electronic driver for LED lighting.


  • It is the simple process for both modulation and demodulation.
  • Transmitter and receiver circuits are simple and easy to construct.
  • PAM can generate other pulse modulation signals and can carry the message at the same time.


  • Bandwidth should be large for transmission PAM modulation.
  • Noise will be great.
  • Pulse amplitude signal varies so power required for transmission will be more.

This article is all about the circuit design of pulse amplitude modulation and concepts of modulation. Hope you have got a good understanding of this article. Further, if you have any doubts regarding signals and systems  please write to us by commenting in the comments section given below.

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What is the Difference Between GSM and CDMA? Fri, 17 Nov 2017 12:32:14 +0000 GSM and CDMA


The cellular mobile service is being used everywhere in the world today. GSM and CDMA are two dominant technologies in the world of mobile communication. These two technologies differ the way in which the calls and data transfer takes place over a network and mobile.



What is GSM?

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication. It is a digital mobile telephony system used for trans-receiving of the data and voice signals and is a second generation standard for mobile networks.

The GSM standard operates on three different carrier frequencies 900MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz. 900MHz band is used for original GSM system and the 1800MHz band is added to support the increasing number of customers. The 1900 MHz frequency band is used mainly in the United States.

A GSM phone is a digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

The GSM standard has led to the evolution of the wireless services like GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) UMTS (Universal Mobile Radio System) and EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution). Its users were the first to take the advantage of Short Message System (SMS).

A GSM system makes use of cells to provide wireless communication to the subscribers. The GSM mobiles are identified by using Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). This is a removable smart card which contains the information of the subscriber. This SIM card allows the customer to switch from one mobile to another.

Advantages of GSM

  • GSM provides improved spectrum efficiency
  • Low-cost mobile set and base stations
  • High-quality speech
  • International roaming
  • Compatibility with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

What is CDMA?

CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access. It is used in cellular communication similar to GSM and is a second generation and third generation standard for mobile networks. It is the most secure mode of communication because of its spread spectrum property.

CDMA is a form of multiplexing where a number of signals occupy a single transmission channel and optimizing the use of available bandwidth. This technology is used in ultra high frequency (UHF) cellular systems having a band ranging from 800MHz to 1.9GHz.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

CDMA uses to analog to digital conversion in combination with spread spectrum technology. First, the audio signal is digitized to binary elements.

The frequency of the transmitted signal is then made to change according to the code. Thus, it can be intercepted only by a receiver whose frequency is programmed with the same code.

The original CDMA standard called CDMA One offers a transmission speed of up to 14.4 kbps in its single channel form and up to 115kbps in an eight-channel form. CDMA2000 and wideband CDMA deliver the data many times faster.


  • Efficient utilization of fixed frequency spectrum.
  • Flexible allocation of resources
  • Multipath fading may be substantially reduced due to large signal bandwidth.
  • No limit on a number of users.
  • Impossible to decipher the code sent and better signal quality.
  • No sense of hand-off when changing cells.
  • The CDMA channel is nominally 1.23MHz wide.
  • Soft hand-off minimizes signal breakup as the handset passes from one cell to another.
  • CDMA is compatible with other cellular technologies, thus allowing a national wide roaming.

Differences between GSM and CDMA

1 The GSM is based on wedge spectrum called a carrier.


The CDMA is based on spread spectrum technology.


2 This carrier is divided into time slots, and each user is assigned a different time slot. Thus, until the ongoing call is finished, no other user can access the same slot. This technology allows each user to transmit over the entire frequency spectrum all the time.
3 Less security compared to CDMA technology.


More security is provided in CDMA technology.


4 No built-in encryption. It has built-in encryption
5 Signals can be detected as the GSM signals are concentrated in the narrow bandwidth. The signals cannot be detected easily in CDMA.


6 The GSM network operates in the frequency spectrum of 850MHz and 1900MHz.


The CDMA network operates in the frequency spectrum of 850MHz and 1900MHz.


7 GSM is used over 80% of the world’s mobile network.


CDMA is exclusively used in the United States, Canada and Japan.


8 GSM uses EDGE data transfer technology.


CDMA has faster data transfer as EVDO ready data transfer technology is used


9 It offers a maximum download speed of 384 Kbps.


It offers a maximum download speed of 2 Mbps.


10 A SIM card is required for the working of GSM device.


CDMA phones do not have these pulses.


11 A GSM is more flexible than CDMA as the SIM can be replaced with other GSM devices. A CDMA is not flexible.
12 GSM phones emit continuous wave pulse. Thus, there is a need to reduce the exposures to electromagnetic fields.


CDMA phones do not have these pulses.


13 GSM phone emits about 28 times more radiations on an average as compared to CDMA.


Very less radiation

This article is all about the difference between GSM and CDMA technology. Furthermore, for any help on GSM and CDMA technology-based projects or doubts regarding this article, you can contact us by commenting on the comment section given below.

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Basic FPGA Architecture and its Applications Mon, 13 Nov 2017 09:28:57 +0000 FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array


Electronic industry has simulations and prototyping as their important segments since a long period. Electronic companies design the hardware dedicated to their products with their standards and protocols which makes it challenging for the end users to reconfigure the hardware as per their needs. This requirement for hardware led to the growth of a new segment of customer-configurable field programmable integrated circuits called FPGAs. In this article, we discuss FPGA Architecture and Applications.

What is FPGA?

The FPGA is Field Programmable Gate Array. It is a type of device that is widely used in electronic circuits. FPGAs are semiconductor devices which contain programmable logic blocks and interconnection circuits. It can be programmed or reprogrammed to the required functionality after manufacturing.

Basics of FPGA

When a circuit board is manufactured and if it contains an FPGA as a part of it. This is programmed during the manufacturing process and further can be reprogrammed later to create an update or make necessary changes.

This feature of FPGA makes it unique from ASIC. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) are custom manufactured for specific design task. In past FPGAs are used to develop low speed, complex and volume design, but today FPGA easily pushes the performance barrier up to 500MHz.

In microcontrollers, the chip is designed for a customer and they have to write the software and compile it to hex file to load onto the microcontroller. This software can be easily replaced as it is stored in flash memory.

In FPGAs, there is no processor to run the software and we are the one designing the circuit. We can configure an FPGA as simple as an AND gate or a complex as the multi-core processor.

To create a design we write Hardware Description Language (HDL), which is of two types – Verilog and VHDL. Then the HDL is synthesized into a bit file using a BITGEN to configure the FPGA.

The FPGA stores the configuration in RAM, that is the configuration is lost when there is no power connectivity. Hence, they must be configured every time power is supplied.

FPGA  Architecture

FPGAs are prefabricated silicon chips that can be programmed electrically to implement digital designs. The first static memory based FPGA called SRAM is used for configuring both logic and interconnection using a stream of configuration bits. Today’s modern EPGA contains approximately 3,30,000 logic blocks and around 1,100 inputs and outputs.

FPGA Architecture

                                 FPGA Architecture

The FPGA Architecture consists of three major components

  • Programmable Logic Blocks, which implement logic functions
  • Programmable Routing (interconnects), which implements functions
  • I/O blocks, which are used to make off-chip connections

Programmable Logic Blocks

The programmable logic block provides basic computation and storage elements used in digital systems. A basic logic element consists of programmable combinational logic, a flip-flop, and some fast carry logic to reduce area and delay cost.

Modern FPGAs contain a heterogeneous mixture of different blocks like dedicated memory blocks, multiplexers. Configuration memory is used throughout the logic blocks to control the specific function of each element.

Programmable Routing

The programmable routing establishes a connection between logic blocks and Input/Output blocks to complete a user-defined design unit.

It consists of multiplexers pass transistors and tri-state buffers. Pass transistors and multiplexers are used in a logic cluster to connect the logic elements.

Programmable I/O

The programmable I/O pads are used to interface the logic blocks and routing architecture to the external components. The I/O pad and the surrounding logic circuit form as an I/O cell.

These cells consume a large portion of the FPGA’s area. And the design of I/O programmable blocks is complex, as there are great differences in the supply voltage and reference voltage.

The selection of standards is important in I/O architecture design. Supporting a large number of standards can increase the silicon chip area required for I/O cells.

With advancement, the basic FPGA Architecture has developed through the addition of more specialized programmable function blocks.

The special functional blocks like ALUs, block RAM, multiplexers, DSP-48, and microprocessors have been added to the FPGA, due to the frequency of the need for such resources for applications.

The below snap shows an example of an FPGA Board.

FPGA Board

                              FPGA Board

FPGA Architecture Design Flow

FPGA Architecture design comprises of design entry, design synthesis, design implementation, device programming and design verification.

Design verification includes functional verification and timing verification that takes place at the time of design flow. The following flow shows the design process of the FPGA.

FPGA Arhitecture Design Flow

             FPGA Architecture Design Flow

Design Entry

The design entry is done in different techniques like schematic based, hardware description language (HDL) and a combination of both etc. If the designer wants to deal with hardware, then the schematic entry is a good choice.

If the designer thinks the design in an algorithmic way, then the HDL is the better choice. The schematic based entry gives the designer a greater visibility and control over the hardware.

Design Synthesis

This process translates VHDL code into a device netlist format, i.e., a complete circuit with logical elements. The design synthesis process will check the code syntax and analyze the hierarchy of the design architecture.

This ensures the design optimized for the design architecture. The netlist is saved as Native Generic Circuit (NGC) file.

Design Implementation

The implementation process consists of

  • Translate
  • Map
  • Place and Route


This process combines all the input netlists to the logic design file which is saved as NGD (Native Generic Database) file. Here the ports are assigned to the physical elements like pins, switches in the design. This is stored in a file called User Constraints File (UCF).




Mapping divides the circuit into sub-blocks such that they can be fit into the FPGA logic blocks. Thus this process fits the logic defined by NGD into the combinational Logic Blocks, Input-Output Blocks and then generates an NCD file, which represents the design mapped to the components of FPGA.




The routing process places the sub-blocks from the mapping process into the logic block according to the constraints and then connects the logic blocks.



Device Programming

The routed design must be loaded into the FPGA. This design must be converted into a format supported by the FPGA. The routed NCD file is given to the BITGEN program, which generates the BIT file. This BIT file is configured to the FPGA.

Design Verification

Verification can be done at various stages of the process.

1.Behavioral Simulation (RTL Simulation)

Behavioral simulation is the first of all the steps that occur in the hierarchy of the design. This is performed before cheap lace dresses the synthesis process to verify the RTL code.

In this process, the signals and variables are observed and further, the procedures and functions are traced and breakpoints are set.

2. Functional Simulation

Functional simulation is performed post-translation simulation. It gives the information about the logical operation of the circuit.

3. Static Timing Simulation

This is done post mapping. Post map timing report gives the signal path delays. After place and route, timing report takes the timing delay information. This provides a complete timing summary of the design.

Applications of FPGA

  • FPGAs have gained a quick acceptance over the past decades. Here are the some of the applications of FPGAs in various technologies.
  • Users can apply them to the wide range of applications like random logics, SPLDs, device controllers, communication encoding and filtering.
  • The emulation of entire large hardware systems via the use of many interconnected FPGAs.
  • They offer a powerful solution for meeting machine vision, industrial networking, motor control and video surveillance.
  • FPGAs are used in custom computing machines.
  • FPGAs provide a unique combination of highly parallel custom computation and low-cost computation.

This is all about FPGA architecture. FPGA provides a new generation in the programmable logic devices.

The word Field in the name itself denotes to the ability of the gate arrays to be programmed for a specific function by the user instead of by the manufacturer of the device. The word Array is used to denote a series of columns and rows of gates that can be programmed by the end user.

Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or electrical and electronic projects, please give your feedback in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the three major components of FPGA Architecture?

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Different Types of Wireless Communication Technologies Tue, 17 Oct 2017 12:12:27 +0000 Wireless communication plays a significant role in day to day life. Besides communication, wireless technology has become an integral part of our daily activities. The transmission of data or information from one place to another wirelessly is referred as wireless communication. This provides an exchange of data without any conductor through RF and radio signals. The information is transmitted across the devices over some meters to hundreds of kilometres through well-defined channels.

Wireless Communication Technologies

Wireless Communication Technologies

Different types of signals are used in communication between the devices for wireless transmission of data. The following are the different electromagnetic signals are used depending on their wavelength and frequency.

  • Radio Frequency Transmission
  • Infrared Transmission
  • Microwave Transmission
  • Lightwave Transmission

Radio Frequency Transmission

Radio frequency is a form of electromagnetic transmission used in wireless communication. RF signals are easily generated, ranging 3kHz to 300GHz. These are used in wireless communication because of their property to penetrate through objects and travel long distances.

Radio communication depends on the wavelength, transmitter power, receiver quality, type, size and height of the antenna.


  • These are frequency dependent
  • These have the relatively low bandwidth for data transmission.

Infrared Transmission

Infrared radiations are electromagnetic radiations with longer wavelengths than visible light. These are usually used for short-range communications. These signals do not pass through solid objects.

Examples like Television remote control, mobile data sharing.

Infrared Transmission

Infrared Transmission

Microwave Transmission

Microwaves are the form of electromagnetic transmission used in wireless communication systems. The wavelength of microwave ranges from one meter to one millimetre. The frequency varies from 300MHz to 300GHz. These are widely used for long distance communications and are relatively less expensive.

Microwave Transmission Node

Microwave Transmission Node


  • The microwave does not pass through buildings.
  • Bad weather affects the signal transmission.
  • These are frequency dependent.

Lightwave Transmission

Light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength ranging between infrared radiations and ultraviolet radiations. The wavelength ranges from 430 to 750THz. These are unguided optical signals such as laser and are unidirectional.

Light wave Transmission

Lightwave Transmission


  • These signals cannot penetrate through rain and fog.
  • The laser beam gets easily diverted by air.

Types of Wireless Communication Technologies

Wireless communication technology is categorized into different types depending on the distance of communication, the range of data and type of devices used. The following are the different types of wireless communication technologies.

  • Radio and Television Broadcasting
  • Radar Communication
  • Satellite communication
  • Cellular Communication
  • Global Positioning System
  • WiFi
  • Bluetooth
  • Radio Frequency Identification


Radio communication was one of the first wireless technology developed and it is still in use. The portable multi-channel radios allow the user to communicate over short distances whereas citizen band and maritime radios provide communication services over long distances for truckers and sailors.

Radio Transmission

Radio Transmission

Mostly radio broadcasts sound through the air as radio waves. Radio has a transmitter which transmits the data in the form of radio signals to the receiver antenna.

To broadcast common programming stations are associated with the radio networks. The broadcast happens either in simulcast or syndication or both the forms. Radio broadcasting may be done via cable FM, and satellites over long distances at up to two megabits/Sec.


A cellular network uses encrypted radio links, modulated to allow many users to communicate across the single frequency band. As the individual handsets lack significant broadcasting power, the system depends on a network of cellular towers which are capable of triangulating the source of any signal and handing reception duties off to the most suitable antenna.



The data transmission over cellular networks is possible with modern 4G systems capable of speeds reaching that of wired DSL. Cellular companies charge their customers by a minute of their voice and by the kilobytes for data.


Satellite communication is a wireless technology having significant importance across the globe. They have found widespread use in specialized situations.

Satellite Communication System

Satellite Communication System

The devices using satellite technology to communicate directly with the orbiting satellite through radio signals.

This allows users to stay connected virtually from anywhere on the earth. Portable satellite phones and modems have powerful broadcast feature and reception hardware than the cellular devices due to the increased range.

The satellite communication consists of a space segment and a ground segment. When the signal is sent to the satellite through a device, the satellite amplifies the signal and sent it back to the receiver antenna which is located on the earth’s surface. The ground segment consists of a transmitter, receiver and the space segment, which is the satellite itself.


Wi-Fi is a low-cost wireless communication technology. A WiFi setup consists of a wireless router which serves a communication hub, linking portable device with an internet connection.This network facilitates connection of many devices depending on the router configuration. These networks are limited in range due to the low power transmission, allowing the user to connect only in the close proximity.



This network facilitates connection of many devices depending on the router configuration. These networks are limited in range due to the low power transmission, allowing the user to connect only in the close proximity.


  • Information can be transmitted quickly with a high speed and accuracy.
  • The internet can be accessed from anywhere, at any time without any cables or wires.
  • Emergency situations can be alerted through wireless communication.
  • Wireless, no bunches of wire running out.
  • Communication can reach where wiring is not feasible and costly.


  • An Unauthorized person can easily misuse the wireless signals which spread through the air.
  • It is very important to secure the wireless network to protect information.
  • High cost to set up the infrastructure.
  • Wireless communication is influenced by physical constructions, climatic conditions and interference from other wireless devices.

Applications Wireless Communication

Wireless communication has wide applications.

  • Space
  • Military
  • Telecommunications
  • Wireless Power Transmission
  • IoT
  • Radar communication
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Fiber optics
  • Intelligent Transport Systems

Therefore, this is all about Types of wireless communication and applications, these networks are one of the important technologies in the telecommunications market. WiFi, WiMax, Bluetooth, Femtocell, 3G and 4G are some of the most important standards of Wireless technology.

The information which is given in this article will be helpful to the viewers. Furthermore, any queries, suggestions or electronics projects, you can comment us by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you “What are the disadvantages of Wireless Communication?

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How to Build A Voltage Inverter Circuit, Working and Its Applications? Mon, 11 Sep 2017 07:08:59 +0000 Voltage Inverter Device

Voltage Inverter Device

Generally, many people have confused on voltage inverter and converter, and their working principles. An inverter is an electrical device, which converts DC power to AC power and either increases or decreases the voltage level accordingly. In comparison, a converter changes the voltage level but does not change its type. So in converters, an AC voltage would still be AC and a DC voltage would still be in DC. Inverters are becoming more popular along with along with solar power systems where we get a low voltage DC supply to power ordinary appliances that either run on 110V or 220V AC.

Inverters are used in a large number of electrical power applications. Voltage inverters are divided into three categories, Pulse-width Modulated Inverters, Square-wave Inverters, and Single-phase Inverters with Voltage Cancellation.

Voltage Inverter Working Principle?

The basic idea behind every inverter circuit is to produce oscillations using the given DC and apply these oscillations across the primary of the transformer by amplifying the current. This primary voltage is then stepped up to a higher voltage depending upon the number of turns in primary and secondary coils.

Most inverters are of the variable voltage, variable frequency design. They consist of a converter section, a bus capacitor section and an inverting section. The converter section uses semiconductor devices to rectify (convert) the incoming fixed voltage, fixed frequency 3-phase AC power to DC voltage which is stored in the bus capacitor bank.

There it becomes a steady source of current for the power devices which are located in what is known as the inverting section. The inverting section absorbs power from the DC bus cap bank, inverts it back to simulated 3-Phase AC sine waves of varying voltage and varying frequency that are typically used to vary the speed of a 3-phase induction motor.

Voltage Inverter

Voltage Inverter

Steps to Make a Voltage Inverter Circuit

The different steps to make a voltage inverter includes the following

Required Components

  • Breadboard to place all the components and to solder everything on
  • LM555IC chip is the heart of the circuit
  • The values of Resistors, capacitors, and diodes are shown in the circuit below.
  • Color LEDs and voltage supply

Add the IC LM555 Chip

  • Place the LM555IC chip on the breadboard which is the heart of the entire circuit
  • Give the voltage supply and GND
  • Connect the two pins from Pin 6 to Pin 2 and connect the two resistors R1, R2
  • Add a Capacitor C1
  • Watch out of the Positive and the Negative connections of the capacitor
  • The LED has two terminals namely positive and negative, where a shorter leg is the negative terminal
IC LM555 Chip Pulse Generator

IC LM555 Chip Pulse Generator

Design the Circuit by Connecting the Components

The voltage inverter circuit is shown below, that uses a well known LM555IC timer chip. The schematic diagram divided into three parts, namely an oscillator, rectifier, and voltage regulator.An oscillator is used to convert DC into AC, a special type of rectifier is used to convert AC to DC and finally a voltage regulator.

Voltage Inverter Circuit

Voltage Inverter Circuit

An oscillator is used to convert DC into AC, a special type of rectifier is used to convert AC to DC and finally a voltage regulator.

This IC in the above circuit is wired as an oscillator. The high period of the of the cycle acquires 0.6933× (R1+R2) ×C1 Secs and the low period acquires 0.693×R2×C1 Sec.With the R1, R2 and C1 values, this generates a square wave approximately 1.3 kHz at pin-3.

The connection of the two diodes provides rectification and certainly, they do generate a DC signal, but in a dissimilar way than the general diode bridges.

When pin-3 of the IC is high, the D1 diode ON and conducts and thus the IC charges C2 capacitor. When pin-3 toggles low, the diode D1 OFF and it blocks current.

There will be a charge of C2 capacitor and the positive side of the capacitor is now the 0V level. The other side must then be -VCC if we neglect the threshold of D1 diode for a while.

That means that diode D2 performs and capacitor C2 charges, C3 with a -Ve voltage. And capacitor C3 works as a smoothing capacitor.

That means that diode D2 performs and capacitor C2 charges, C3 with a -Ve voltage. And capacitor C3 works as a smoothing capacitor.

As said, the o/p stress must be controllable. The best way to do is to make a changeable voltage divider with one variable resistor and a fixed resistor. This is the merge of R3 & Q1 here, Q1 is a P-channel junction field effect transistor.

Before turning up this circuit, you can try to use the voltage control as Vcc, and go down R3 and Q1.Though, the H0420 design, the pin of the LC-driving voltage couldn’t produce an ample current to feed the IC chip.

In addition, this IC requires a power supply of 4.5V. There are other implementations of the IC. A low-power CMOS version of the chip would obey the power supply of the LC-driving voltage pin of the H0420. low-power CMOS version of the chip would obey the power supply of the LC-driving voltage pin of the H0420.

Applications of voltage inverter

Inverters are a practical device and are a useful piece of equipment for many different applications. Anyone who wants to run a laptop or other electronic device within a car or RV an inverter is required.

Different inverters may have different features making them better suited for different specific applications. Very small inverters are available that connect to a car cigarette lighter, with a single three-prong AC outlet as the output.

Large inverters are generally designed to be hardwired into a building electrical system. Some inverters offer 240 volts output.

Inverter types can be categorized by output waveform, switch type, switching technology and frequency.

Thus, this is all about steps to make a voltage inverter circuit. Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or electrical and electronics projects, please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the main function of an inverter?

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What Are The Advantages Of Using A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Tue, 29 Aug 2017 12:32:50 +0000 PCB


The printed circuit boards are very vital part of a modern electronic equipment. PCB is an acronym for printed circuit board. A basic PCB circuit consists of a very large number of passive and active components. All the components are connected from side to side with traces on the board. It is absolutely possible to develop very large circuits on small printed circuit boards with the availability of very small sized electronic components.

Printed circuit board offer varied advantages which make them the perfect choice for the manufacturers of electronic components, instruments, and equipment everywhere. The advantages of the printed circuit board are discussed below.

Compact Size and Saving of Wire

A characteristic PCB includes a large number of electronic components. On a Printed circuit board, the interconnection between the components is made through copper tracks instead of using a number of current carrying wires. It makes the interconnections less bulky.

Most of these components are very small in size. It would be close to impossible to connect these components together with wires without the aid of printed circuit boards.

A typically printed circuit board offers a simple platform to arrange the electronic components in a compressed and efficient way. This compactness allows the creation of big and complicated electronic circuits in small form factors. This, in turn, takes less space in devices.

Ease of Repair and Diagnostic

If in case of any damage, it’s very easy to check and replace the particular failure components. The electronic components and their polarities on a properly designed, printed circuit boards are clearly labeled on the board.

This allows convenience during the installation process as well as repair process. Signal paths are often traced during diagnostics.

Saving of Time

The conventional method of circuit connections takes much time to connect the components. Whereas the printed circuit board takes less time in assembling a circuit as compared to conventional method.

Immune to Movement

The most important thing to notice is that all the components on a printed circuit board held fixed to the board. This is done by solder flux which does not allow them to move irrespective of the movement of the board itself.

Tight connections and Short Circuits Avoided

As the connections are made automatically through copper tracks, there is no chance of loose connections or short circuit.

Low Electronic Noise

A printed circuit board (that has been properly laid out) gives less electronics noise. If it is not laid out properly, then the noise could significantly degrade the performance of the circuit.

The electrical components on a printed circuit board are organized in a way that the path lengths of the electrical current between them are as less as possible.

This leads to low radiation and pickup of electromagnetic waves, thus ensuring lower crosstalk in between components and in between varied traces, which usually is a major concern in electronic circuits.

The electrical noise can be released in the form of heat, radiation, or flickering sound.

Low Cost

Mass production can be achieved at lower cost.


All the above factors bring reliability in the performance of the circuit.

Disadvantages of Printed Circuit Boards

As the copper tracks are very thin they can able to carry less current hence a PCB can not be used for heavy currents because in that case the strips will be heated up and cause problems.

Soldering needs precautions on the risk of strips being over heated and destroyed are always there.

Types Of Printed Circuit Board

As we discussed above the printed circuit boards are electronic circuit boards for mounting electronic components on a non-conductive board, and for creating conductive connections between them.

The creation of circuit patterns is accomplished using both additive and subtractive methods. The conductive circuit is generally Copper, although Aluminium, Nickel, Chrome, and other metals are sometimes used.

Depends upon the spatial and density requirement, and the circuitry complexity determines the type of board to be produced. There are three basic variants of printed circuit boards as below mentioned:

Single sided PCB: conductors on only one surface of the dielectric base of the printed circuit board.

Single Sided Printed Circuit Board

Single Sided Printed Circuit Board

Double sided PCB: conductor on both sides of a dielectric material and the layers interconnected by plated through holes (PTH).

Double Sided PCB

Double Sided PCB

Multilayer PCB: conductors on three or more layers separated by dielectric material and the layers are interconnected by PTH or pads.

Multilayer PCB

Multilayer PCB

Furthermore, any doubts regarding this article and electronics projects for beginners, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below.

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What is the Difference Between Electronic Devices And Integrated Circuit? Wed, 05 Jul 2017 13:38:07 +0000 electronic deviceAn every elementary electronic device constructed as a single unit. Any circuit or a system can produce the desired output based on the input. Electronic devices are the components for controlling the electrical current flow for the purpose of signal processing and system control. Before the invention of integrated circuits (ICs), all the individual electronic devices like the transistor, diodes were discrete in nature. All the individual electronic devices are called as discrete components.

Electronic devices are usually small and can be grouped together into packages called integrated circuits. This miniaturization is central to the modern electronics boom. Integrated circuits are made up of silicon wafers, not inserted (or placed) onto silicon wafers.

Electronic Devices And Integrated Circuits

Electronic Device circuit board And Integrated Circuits

So the main thing is to create an IC, all discrete components processed on a silicon wafer. But then again we have a problem; some discrete circuits may not be possible to be created on a silicon wafer while we are manufacturing an IC.

Electronic Devices and Types of Electronic Devices

An Electronic circuit is constructed with the electronic components that are manufactured separately. Later, these components are connected together, by using conducted wires on a circuit board or a printed circuit board.

The transistor is one of the primary components used in discrete circuits, and combinations of these transistors can be used to create logic gates. These logic gates may be then used to obtain the desired output from an input. Discrete (electronic device) circuits can be designed to operate at higher voltages.

9v Regulated Power Supply Circuit Using Transistors And Zener

9v Regulated Power Supply Circuit Using Transistors And Zener

We have different types of electronic devices, they are the active components and the passive components. An active device is any type of circuit component which controls the flow of electrons electrically. The Components that are unable to control the current by means of another electrical signal are called passive devices.

Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and even diodes are all considered passive devices. Active devices include, but are not limited to, vacuum tubes, transistors, silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs), and TRIACs.

These Electronic device circuits have the following disadvantages

  • Assembling and wiring of all individual Electronic device components take more time and occupies a larger space required.
  • Replacement of a failed component is complicated in an existed circuit or system.
  • Actually, the components are connected using soldering process so, that may cause less reliability.

To overcome these problems of reliability and space conservation, integrated circuits are developed.

Integrated Circuits

Integrated Circuit invented by Jack Kilby in the 1950s. The integrated circuits are commonly found in every modern electronic circuit.

An Integrated circuit (IC) is commonly termed as a Chip. An integrated circuit is a microscopic array of electronic components and electrical circuits (Resistors, Capacitors, Inductor…) that diffused into the surface of semiconductor material wafer such as silicon.

The Integrated circuits are made up of silicon wafers, not inserted (or placed) onto silicon wafers.

These ICs are packed in a solid outer cover which can be made of an insulating material with high thermal conductivity and with contact terminals (also called pins) of the circuit coming out from the body of the IC.

Basic structure of an IC

Basic structure of an IC

Based on pin configuration different types of integrated circuit packaging are available.

  • Dual In-line Package (DIP)
  • Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP)
  • Flip-Chip Ball Grid Array (FCBGA)

The transistors are the main components in IC manufacturing. These transistors may be Bipolar Transistors or Field Effect Transistors depends upon the application of ICs.

Integrated Circuit Packages

Integrated Circuit Packages

As the technology is growing day by day, the number of transistors incorporated in an IC is also increasing. Depending upon the number of transistors in an IC or Chip, the ICs are categorized into five types given below.

S.No IC  category Number of transistors incorporated in a single IC chip
1 Small Scale Integration (SSI) Up to 100
2 Medium Scale Integration (MSI) From 100 to 1000
3 Large Scale Integration (LSI) From 1000 to 20K
4 Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) From 20K to 1000000
5 Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) From 10,00,000 to 1,00,00,000

Advantages of an Integrated Circuit over Electronic Device Circuits

An integrated circuit quite small in size practically around 20,000 electronic device components can be incorporated in a single square inch of IC chip.

Many complex circuits are fabricated on a single chip and hence this simplifies the designing of a complex circuit. And also it improves the performance of the system.

  • ICs will give high reliability. A lesser number of connections.
  • These are available at low cost due to bulk production.
  • ICs consume very tiny power or less power.
  • It can easily replaceable from the mother circuit.

Disadvantages of an Integrated Circuit

  • After fabrication of an IC, it is not possible to modify the parameters within which an integrated circuit will operate.
  • When a component in an IC gets damaged, the whole IC has to be replaced by new one.
  • For higher value of capacitance (>30pF) in an IC, We should have to connect a discrete component externally
  • It is not possible to produce high power ICs (more than 10W)

Most Common Integrated Circuits

Integrated circuits are everywhere, in so many forms across electronics, it’s not possible to cover everything at this movement. Here are a few of the more common ICs you might come across in educational electronics.

Logic Gates, Timers, Shift Registers, Microcontrollers, microprocessors, and FPGAs Etc. These different ICs can be fabricated by different IC fabrication methods

Logic gates, the building blocks of much more ICs themselves, can be packaged into their own integrated circuit. Logic gates can be connected inside an IC to create timers, counters, latches, shift registers, and other basic logic circuitry. Most of these simple circuits can be found in DIP packages, as well as SOIC and SSOP.

The Microcontrollers, microprocessors, and FPGAs, all packing thousands, millions, even billions of transistors onto a tiny chip, are all integrated circuits. These components exist in a wide range of functionality, complexity, and size; from an 8-bit Microcontroller like the ATmega328 to a complex 64-bit.

FPGAs and complex microprocessors can have upwards of a thousand pins and are only available in advanced packages like QFN, LGA, or BGA.

This is all about The Difference Between Electronic Devices And Integrated Circuit? advantages, disadvantages of discrete devices and ICs.

Furthermore, any doubts regarding electronics projects for beginners, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below.

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How Does A Transistor Work? Wed, 21 Jun 2017 09:11:33 +0000 The transistor was invented by William Shockley in 1947. A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device which can be used for switching applications, amplification of weak signals and in quantities of thousands and millions of transistors are interconnected and embedded into a tiny integrated circuit/chip, which makes a computer memory.



What is Transistor?

The transistor is a semiconductor device that can function as a signal amplifier or as a solid-state switch. The transistor can be considered as two p-n junctions that are placed back to back.

The structure has two PN junctions with a very small base region between the two outlying areas for the collector and emitter. There are three main classifications of transistors each with its own symbols, characteristics, design parameters, and applications.

Bipolar Junction Transistor

BJTs are considered current driven devices and have a relatively low input impedance. They are available as NPN or PNP types. The designation describes the polarity of the semiconductor material used to fabricate the transistor.

Bipolar Transistor Types

Bipolar Transistor Types

The arrow direction shown in the symbol of transistor indicates the direction of current through it. Thus, in NPN type, the current comes out from the emitter terminal. Whereas in PNP, the current goes into the emitter.

Field Effect Transistors

FET’s, are referred to as voltage driven devices which have a high input impedance. Field Effect Transistors are further sub-classified into two groups, Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFET) and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET).

Field Effect Transistors

Field Effect Transistors

Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET)

Similar to the JFET above except the input voltage is capacitive coupled to the transistor. The device has a low power drain but is easily damaged by static discharge.

MOSFET( nmos and pmos)


Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

IGBT is the most recent transistor development. This is a hybrid device which combines characteristics of both the BJT with the capacitive coupled and the NMOS/ PMOS device with high impedance input.

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

How Transistor Works- Bipolar Junction Transistor

In this article, we will discuss Bipolar transistor working The BJT is a three-lead device with an Emitter, a Collector, and a Base lead. Basically, The BJT is a current driven device. Two P-N junctions exist within a BJT.

One PN junction exists between the emitter and the base region, a second exists between the collector and the base region. A little amount of current flow emitter-to-base (base current measured in micro amps) can control a reasonably large current flow through the device from the emitter to the collector (collector current measured in milliamps).

Bipolar transistors are available in complimentary nature with respect to its polarities. The NPN has an emitter and collector of N-Type semiconductor material and the base material is the P-Type semiconductor material. In PNP these polarities are simply reversed here, the emitter and collector are P-Type semiconductor material and the base is N-Type materials.

The functions of NPN and PNP transistors essentially the same, but the power supply polarities are reversed for each type. The only major difference between these two types is that the NPN transistor has a higher frequency response than the PNP transistor (because the flow of electron is faster than hole flow). Therefore, in high-frequency applications, the NPN transistors are used.

In usual BJT operation, the base-emitter junction is forward biased and the base-collector junction is reverse biased. When a current flows through the base-emitter junction, a current also flows in the collector circuit. This is larger and proportional to the one in the base circuit.

In order to explain the way in which this happens, the example of an NPN transistor is taken. The same principles are used for the p-n-p transistor except that the current carrier is holes rather than electrons and the voltages are reversed.

Operation of a BJT

The emitter of the NPN device is made of an n-type material, hence the majority carriers are electrons. When the base-emitter junction is forward biased the electrons move from the n-type region towards the p-type region and the holes move towards the n-type region.

When they reach each other they combine enabling a current to flow across the junction. When the junction is reverse biased the holes and electrons move away from the junction, now a depletion region forms between the two areas and no current flows.

BJT NPN Transistor Biasing Ciruit

BJT NPN Transistor Biasing Circuit

When a current flows between the base and emitter, electrons leave the emitter and flow into the base, the illustration shown in the above diagram. Generally, the electrons would combine when they reach depletion region.

However, the doping level in this region is very low and the base is also very thin. This means the most of the electrons are able to travel across this region without recombining with the holes. As a result, the electrons drift towards the collector (because of the positive potential of the collector).

In this way, they are able to flow across what is effectively a reverse biased junction, and current flows in the collector circuit.

It is found that the collector current is significantly higher than the base current and because the proportion of electrons combining with holes remains the same the collector current is always proportional to the base current.

The ratio of the base to collector current is given the Greek symbol β. Typically the ratio β may be between 50 and 500 for a small signal transistor.

This means that the collector current will be between 50 and 500 times more than that of base region current. For high power transistors, the value of β is probable to be smaller, with figures of 20 not being unusual.

Transistor Applications

  • Most common applications of transistor comprise of analog & digital switches, power regulators, multi-vibrators, different signal generators, signal amplifiers & equipment controllers.
  • Transistors are the basic building blocks of the integrated circuits and most up-to-date electronics.
  • A major application of transistor is the Microprocessors over and over again comprises more than a billion of transistors in every single chip.

Hope, this article provides adequate information about how does a transistor works? For designing innovative electrical and electronics projects on your own you can approach us by posting your ideas and comments regarding this article in the comments section below.

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