Enthusiastic people often seek some interesting research projects that are application oriented, and thus strive hard relentlessly to make something work better for all. The projects’ listed in this article, that is, electric traction related projects for intelligent train system to prevent the accidents due to collision, fires, gate control, etc., are a few among those projects.
1. RF-Based Intelligent Train Engine Using Timer
This system is proposed to reduce those train accidents that occur due to the train driver’s mistakes like negligence in observing signals. It uses RF transmitter and receiver circuits to reduce the speed of a train gradually until it reaches the halt position, and it is placed at a minimum distance of 2 km in order to have better speed control of the motor in the train.
A timer circuit is used in the transmitter circuit to produce the RF beam between the pulses for a particular time interval. This transmitter circuit is placed at a signal pole and it gets turned ON only when the ‘RED’ signal is ‘ON’. These RF beam cycles are repeated until the RED light is ON.
An RF Receiver circuit is placed in the locomotive, as shown in the figure. It has an IR sensor, which is placed in such a way that it receives the RF beam. Based on this sensing, the IR sensor interrupts the supply to the DC motor which drives the train. Supply to the motor is gradually reduced by the relays. Microcontroller is used in this receiver circuit to control the relays based on IR detection.
2. Implementation of ZigBee-Based Train Anti -Collision System
The main objective of this project is to avoid train collisions by providing intelligent anti collision system, which is based on ZigBee wireless technology. This system contains four sub-modules: 1.Train module, 2. signaling module, 3.level crossing module, and 4. Control centre module. Each module is interconnected to the other via ZigBee system in such a way that the transfer of the data is related to the state of the things like train moving, gate opening, signal interruptions, etc.
Each module consists of a ZigBee module, a microcontroller unit and alarm circuits. Each ZigBee module interacts with the other three modules and correspondingly gives the input signals to the microcontroller unit. The microcontroller is programmed in such a way that it controls the train braking system in the train module; gate opening or closing at the level crossing; signal controlling in control room; and so on. This system is highly reliable compared with the timer-based system discussed above.
3. Intelligent Train Using LabVIEW
The main aim of this project is to save passengers from fire accidents in trains due to short circuits and other fire incidents. This system detects fire and smoke in the train and immediately alerts the driver to stop the train through high speed communication system. With the GPS system present in it, the system identifies the location, and then sends the information of the fire mishap to the control room and other safety systems of the railways.
The temperature and smoke sensors of the system are connected to the data acquisition board (DAQ) that helps detect the temperature and smoke levels in the train, and then sends the data through wireless or wire communication to the host computer. The host computer has Lab VIEW software, which is programmed such that it compares the actual temperature and smoke levels.
If the levels are more than the threshold levels, it immediately alerts the driver, and then enables train brake system, emergency system and water pumping system. In addition to this, with the GPRS, GSM technologies, it alerts the remote control rooms, ambulance and fire engines, as shown in the figure depicted below.
4. Prevention of Accidents Due to Railway Gate Using Android and GSM Technologies
Many lives are lost due to improper railway gate control management, which is responsible for many accidents. The Android and GSM-based technology involved in this project is proposed to minimize human involvement while operating the railway gate. Therefore, this project is quite amazing and interesting as it can be possible in two ways: one is by Android and the other is by using GSM technology.
In an android-based level crossing gate control, remote operation is achieved with a smart phone with Android OS. An operator can operate the gate through the android application in the phone. The system uses microcontroller, Bluetooth device, motor driver, motor and other miscellaneous devices, as shown in the figure.
Whenever the operator gets any train’s information, he uses his Android application to open or close the gate remotely. A motor, as shown in the figure, operates the opening and closing of the gate.
Similarly, railway gate control through GSM is also possible by opening and closing the gate via SMS. In this system, a GSM modem is interfaced with an operating system in such a way that it receives an SMS to open or close the gate. The system uses a level shifter IC as an interfacing between the GSM modem and a microcontroller. Upon receiving the SMS, the GSM modem sends control signals to the microcontroller, and the microcontroller is programmed in such a way that, based on SMS, it correspondingly opens or closes the gate with a motor.
This is all about some very interesting research projects that are immensely helpful to reduce train accidents due to collision, fire and improper railway gate control management. We hope that we have given sufficient information regarding intelligent train systems, and therefore, expect you to write your comments, suggestions and doubts in the comment section given below. Moreover, don’t forget to mention the topic of your choice and the project you are interested in from the above listed projects.