Worldwide, there are more than 15 billion batteries in usage. About 89% batteries are estimated to be common household batteries or the alkaline variety of batteries. These batteries are prone to create problems during manufacturing processor and at the time of their disposal. To overcome this problem, an efficient paper battery is invented. This battery is made of 90% cellulose and the thickness of the battery is less than a printer paper (.025mm). Because of its composition and structural features, the paper battery is not harmful and it is fully recyclable. The main function of the battery is to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. This article gives an overview of the paper battery, its working, usage, battery manufacturing steps, advantages and disadvantages.
In the year 2007, paper battery is created by a group of students at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. In the year 2009, the team of Yi Cui at STANFORD UNIVERSITY made a prototype, which gave a terminal voltage of 1.5V.
What is a Paper Battery?
A paper battery is an ultra-thin, flexible energy storage device that is used as a battery and also as a good capacitor. It is created by combining two things: nano composite paper and nanotubes (nano composite paper made from cellulose and nanotubes made from carbon). Nanocomposite paper is a hybrid energy storage device made of cellulose, which combines the features of super capacitors and batteries. It takes the high-energy storage capacity of the battery and high-energy density of the super capacitor producing the bursts of extreme power.
A carbon nanotube material is a cylinder shaped material, made of carbon. These tubes have different structures that differ in thickness, length, type and number of layers. Carbon nanotubes are characterized into different types based on their structure. They are single walled carbon nanotube, double-walled carbon nanotube, triple-walled carbon nanotube and multi-wall carbon nanotube.
Paper Battery= Paper (Cellulose) + Carbon Nanotubes
This combination permits the battery to provide both long term, bursts of energy, steady power and production. Paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of medical devices, electronics and hybrid vehicles. Paper batteries can be folded, twisted, molded, crumpled, shaped and cut for various applications without any loss of efficiency.
Paper Battery Properties:
Paper battery properties are mainly attributed to the properties of its parts such as cellulose and carbon nanotubes.
The properties of Cellulose include high-tensile strength, biodegradability, low-shear Strength, biocompatibility, good absorption capacity and excellent Porosity, non-toxic, reusableness & recyclability.
The properties of Carbon Nanotubes are the ratio of width: Length ( which is 1:107) high-tensile Strength (which is Greater than Steel) high packing density and low mass density, Lightness, Flexibility, Electrical Conductivity (which is better than Silicon) Low resistance (~33 ohm per square inch) and thickness is typically about 0.5 to 0.7mm
Construction of a Paper Battery:
A paper battery construction involves the following components:
- Cathode: Carbon Nanotube (CNT)
- Anode: Lithium metal (Li+)
- Electrolyte: All electrolytes (including bio Electrolytes like sweat, blood and urine)
- Separator: Paper (Cellulose)
Construction of a paper battery mainly includes these steps:
- Step 1: Black carbon ink is applied on a cellulose-based paper.
- Step2: Black carbon ink is being spread on a paper spread on the paper.
- Step3: A thin lithium film is laminated over the exposed cellulose surface.
- Step4:The cellulose paper is heated at 800C for 5 minutes.
- Step5: Next, the film is peeled off from the substrate
- Step6: The film acts as electrodes of the paper battery. One film is connected to the electrolyte LTO (Li4Ti5012) and another film is pasted to the electrolyte LCO (LiCo02).
- Step7: Next, Connect a LED on both the ends of the battery and check its functionality.
Paper Battery Working
A conventional battery or Rechargeable battery contains a number of separate components that produce electrons through a chemical reaction between the metal and the electrolyte of the battery. The Paper battery works when the paper is dipped in the ion-based liquid solution; next a chemical reaction occurs between the electrodes and liquid. The electrons move from the cathode to anode to generate electricity. The paper electrode stores energy while recharging within 10 seconds because the ions flow through the thin electrode quickly. The best method to increase the output of the battery is to stack different paper batteries one over the other.
Advantages of paper Batteries:
A Paper battery’s advantages mainly include the following:
- A paper battery can work even if it is folded, cut or rolled up.
- A Paper battery consists mainly of carbon and paper; it can be used to power pacemakers within the body.
- A paper battery can be used both as a capacitor and battery.
- It is an ultra-thin storage device.
- It is biodegradable, nontoxic, bio-compatible and economical.
- It generates close to 1.5V of energy.
- It is durable, easily recyclable and reusable.
- It is Overheating and Leakage proof.
- Flexible and Very Light Weight
- Easily Moldable Into different sizes and shapes
- It is flexible, easily moldable and can be molded into different sizes and shapes.
- It has customizable output Voltage
Disadvantage of Paper Battery:
Disadvantages of the paper batteries mainly include the following
- Carbon nanotubes are very expensive.
- Batteries with large enough power are unlikely to be cost effective.
- Should not be inhaled as they can damage the lungs.
- Theses batteries generate e-wastage.
Applications of Paper Batteries:
With the developing technologies and reduction in the cost of cathode nanotubes, these batteries find applications in the following fields:
Paper batteries in electronics
- Paper batteries are used mainly in many electronic devices,such as mobile
- phones, laptop batteries, calculators, digital cameras and also in wireless communication devices like mouse, Bluetooth, keyboard, speakers and headsets.
Paper batteries in medical sciences
Paper batteries are used in the medical field such as for making pacemakers for the heart, artificial tissues, drug delivery systems, cosmetics and in Bio sensors.
Paper batteries in automobiles and aircraft
Paper batteries are used in automobiles and aircraft such as in light weight, guided missiles, hybrid car batteries, long air flights and in satellite programs for powering electronic devices.
This is all about the paper battery with its working principles and applications. These batteries have the potential adaptability to power the next generation electronic appliances, medical devices and hybrid vehicles. So, these batteries could solve all the problems associated with conventional electrical energy storage devices. Furthermore, for any queries, regarding this article or any other electrical projects, you can leave your comments, suggestions by commenting in the comment section below.