Project work in academics helps to improve the technical skills of engineering students. There are different streams in which students can implement projects, but most frequently embedded system platform is chosen for design and implementation of real time projects. There are different types of projects in embedded systems such as robotics projects, power electronics projects, solar based projects, electrical projects, android based projects, arduino based projects, communication based projects, ARM cortex projects, automation projects, and sensor based projects. In this article, we discuss about sensor based projects ideas for engineering students.
Sensor Based Projects Ideas
In our day-to-day life we may observe several sensors based projects such as an automatic outdoor lighting system using LDR sensor, automatic water tank system with ultrasonic sensor (water level sensor), automatic door system using PIR sensor, automatic fan/cooler/air conditioning system using a heat sensor or temperature sensor, and so on. A few innovative sensor based electronics projects ideas for engineering students with brief description about simple sensor projects are discussed below.
Power Saver for Street Light Control System using LDR Sensor Project
LDR based power saver for street light control system project can be implemented by engineering students as one of the sensor based projects, street lights are lighted using the high intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) which consume large amounts of electrical energy. In this conventional highway lighting system, there is no control mechanism to control the intensity of the highway lighting system and also to switch on or off.
In this system, low power consuming light emitting diodes (LEDs) are used as a light source for which are having high life time. Unlike HID lamps, LEDs intensity can be varied during non-peak hours based on requirement.A cluster of LEDs are used to form a street light. The pulse width modulation or PWM signals are generated by arduino program instructions for controlling the intensity of the lights.
Thus, during the peak hours the intensity of LED lights is kept high and as the traffic tends to decrease the intensity of lights is also decreased. Lights are made to start in the evening at 6pm and to shut down completely at 6am in the morning.
Liquid Level Controller by Ultrasonic Sensor based Projects
The ultrasonic level controller is simple sensor based electronics projects comprising an ultrasonic module that is used to detect a precise range with the reflection coming ahead of it. This ultrasonic sensor module is interfaced with a serial port of the microcontroller.
If the liquid level distance measured in cm falls below a set point, then the ultrasonic module generates a signal. This generated output signal is used to operate the motor. The signals sent by the transmission Tx sensor are reflected from the liquid level and is received by the receiver Rx sensor – the output of which is fed to the microcontroller. After receiving the signal from the ultrasonic receiver the microcontroller activates a relay through MOSFET that operates the pump (represented as light in this system for demonstration purpose) ON/OFF as required.
Automatic Door Opening System using PIR Sensor based Projects
This is one of the simple PIR sensor based electronics projects for engineering students. This can be implemented for opening the door automatically by detecting the human body temperature. The doors of few places are always busy with visitors such as shopping malls, hotels, theaters, and so on. These conventional doors are needed to be manually operated frequently. But, the simple sensor based projects can be used to operate these doors automatically using PIR sensor as shown in the figure below.
The infrared radiation emitted from a human body is detected by a passive infrared sensor or the PIR sensor of automatic door opening system project. This PIR sensor generates a sensing signal after detecting infrared energy emitted from the human body. This signal is fed to the 8051 microcontroller which is interfaced to the door motor through motor driver IC. Thus, if any, human body comes near to the sensing area of PIR sensor, automatic door system, then the door gets opened and closes automatically after fixed time delay.
Temperature Control with Digital Sensor based Projects
By using simple sensor based electronics projects we can control the temperature in medical applications and industries. If the temperature exceeds a preset value, then the load (here load is represented with a lamp for demonstration purpose) gets turned off. Four seven segment displays are interfaced to the 8051 microcontroller for displaying purpose.
The digital temperature sensor interfaced to the 8051 microcontroller is used for sensing the temperature conditions. By using four push buttons of this circuit we can adjust the temperature settings. If the temperature exceeds a preset value then the load (lamp) is turned off automatically and if the temperature falls below a set value, then the load (lamp) is turned on automatically.
Contactless Tachometer using IR Sensor Based Projects
The main intention of this project is to design a contactless tachometer for a brushless DC motor (BLDC motor) using IR sensor based electronics projects. We generally use conventional tachometers which are said to be contact type tachometers for speed detection. But, in few cases, physical contact of the tachometer with motor shaft is not feasible. Thus, it requires a contactless tachometer for measuring the readings from a distance without any physical contact.
Infrared transmitting and receiving technique is used in these types of sensor based projects. The IR rays are received after getting reflected from the shaft of the motor. The rate at which infrared rays are reflected back is measured. The IR transmitter and receiver sensors used for generating a pulse to every reflection and is sent to the microcontroller. Thus, each pulse received by the microcontroller is calculated by its timer and the same calculated speed is displayed on an LCD display which is interfaced to the microcontroller.
Thus, we can develop many sensor based projects and the following list provides sensor based projects ideas for engineering students.
- Arduino based DC motor speed control
- Arduino based automatic temperature controlled fan speed regulator
- Arduino based line following robot
- Vehicle movement sensed streetlight with daytime auto off features
- Wireless power driven car or train
- Single phase induction motor speed control
- Ultrasonic obstacle sensed robotic vehicle
- Brushless DC motor speed control by PWM with RPM display
- Detecting speed limit violation on highways
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