In electronics, adder circuit performs addition of the binary numbers.in various computers and other types of processors. Adder circuits are not only used in ALUs, but also used in various processors to calculate increment or decrement operations, table indices, addresses, etc. A typical adder circuit generates sum and carry as the output. The main purpose of these addresses are used to add the different formats like XS-3, binary coded decimal (BCD) and gray code. When the one’s or two’s compliment are being used to specify negative numbers, it is small to alter adder to subtractor.A more complex adder is used to represent other signed numbers. The applications of adder circuit are, adder circuits are not only used to add binary numbers, but also used in digital applications such as address, table index, decoding and calculation etc.

## Types of Adder Circuits

Adder circuits are classified into two types, namely Half Adder Circuit and Full Adder Circuit

### Half Adder Circuit

The half adder circuit is used to sum two binary digits namely A and B. Half adder has two o/ps such as sum and carry, where the sum is denoted with ‘S’ and carry is denoted with ‘C’. The carrier signal specifies an overflow into the following digit of a multi-digit addition. The value of the sum ‘S’ is 2C+S. The simplest design of half adder is shown below. The half adder is used to add two i/p bits and generate a sum and carry which are called as o/ps. The i/p variables of the half adder are termed as augend bits & addend bits, whereas the o/p variables are termed as sum and carry.

#### Truth Table of Half Adder

The truth table of half adder is shown below, using this we can get the Boolean functions for sum & carry. Here Karnal map is used to get the Boolean equations for the sum and carry of the half adder.

#### Half Adder Logic Diagram

The logic diagram of half adder is shown below.If A & B are binary i/ps of the half adder, then the Boolean function to calculate the sum ‘S’ is the XOR gate of inputs A and B. Logic functions to calculate the carry ‘C’ is the AND gate of A and B. From the below half adder logic diagram, it is very clear, it requires one AND gate and one XOR gate. The universal gates, namely NAND and NOR gates are used to design any digital application. For example, here in the below figure shows the designing of a half adder using NAND gates.

##### VHDL Code For Half Adder

entity ha is

Port (a: in STD_LOGIC;

b : in STD_LOGIC;

sha : out STD_LOGIC;

cha : out STD_LOGIC);

end ha;

architecture Behavioral of ha is

begin

sha <= a xor b ;

cha <= a and b ;

end Behavioral

### Full Adder Circuit

A full adder is used to add three input binary numbers. Implementation of full adder is difficult compared with half adder. Full adder has three inputs and two outputs, i/ps are A, B and Cin and o/p’s are sum ‘S’ and carry ‘Cout’. In three inputs of the full adder, two i/ps A B are addend and augend, where third i/p Cin is carry on preceding digit operation. The full adder circuit generates a two bit o/p and these are denoted with the signals namely S and Cout. Where sum= 2XCout+S

#### Truth Table of Full Adder

The truth table of full adder circuit is shown below, using this we can get the Boolean functions for sum & carry. Here Karnal map is used to get the Boolean equations for the sum and carry of the full adder.

#### Full Adder Logic Diagram

This full adder logic circuit is used to add three binary numbers, namely A, B and C, and two o/ps sum and carry. This full adder logic circuit can be implemented with two half adder circuits. The first half adder circuit is used to add the two inputs to generate an incomplete sum & carry. Whereas, a second half adder is used to add ‘Cin’ to the sum of the first half adder to get the final output. If any half adder logic circuit generates a carry, there will be an o/p carry. So output carry will be an OR function of the half adder’s carry o/p. Take a look at the full adder logic circuit shown below.

##### VHDL Coding for Full Adder

entity full_add is

Port ( a : in STD_LOGIC;

b : in STD_LOGIC;

cin : in STD_LOGIC;

sum : out STD_LOGIC;

cout : out STD_LOGIC);

end full_add;

architecture Behavioral of full_add is

component ha is

Port ( a : in STD_LOGIC;

b : in STD_LOGIC;

sha : out STD_LOGIC;

cha : out STD_LOGIC);

end component;

signal s_s,c1,c2: STD_LOGIC ;

begin

HA1:ha port map(a,b,s_s,c1);

HA2:ha port map (s_s,cin,sum,c2);

cout<=c1 or c2 ;

end Behavioral;

Thus, this is all about the Adder Circuit Explanation in Brief with Circuit Diagram, which includes a half adder, full adder with their truth tables & logic diagrams, Furthermore, any queries regarding this topic or engineering project ideas for final year engineering students give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of half adder and full adder?

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